Native Species

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2017 Pricing

SizePrice
2 Inch Pots (32 pots per flat)$1.59 each and $40/flat
4 Inch Pots$4.00/pot
Gallon Pots$16.00 and up
#2 Gallon Pots and up$20.00 and up
Collections (32 2" Pots)$40.00 each

Remember that plants are living things so everything in our catalog may not be available at all times.  We’d be happy to answer your questions about current availability.  If we don’t have what you’re looking for, we can let you know when it might be ready or suggest a good substitution.

*Sizing, Availability and Pricing Subject to Change*

 FlowersHt.HabitatLightDescription4Pack2" Pot4.25" PotGallon +
Wildflowers
Achillea millefolium
Yarrow
White
June to Oct
18-30"Prairie
Savanna Woodland
full sun to part shadeAttractive, aromatic, ferny foliage. Great component of a no-mow or low-mow lawn. Good butterfly plant. Grows well in a wide variety of habitats.••
Agastache foeniculum
Anise Hyssop
Blue
June to Oct
24-40"Prairie
Savanna
full sun to part shadeBeautiful 3" flower spikes attract butterflies throughout summer. Excellent cutflower and nice in perennial gardens. Fragrant foliage makes good herbal tea.••
Agastache scrophulariaefolia
Giant Hyssop
Blue
June to Oct
30-48"Moist Prairie
Lake Edge
full sun to part shadeLarger version of anise hyssop with 4" flower spikes. Adapted to mesic to wet soils. Very good butterfly plant.•
Allium canadense
Wild Garlic
Pink
June to July
18"Prairie
Savanna
full sun to part shadeNarrow stemmed plant produces clusters of flowers mixed with small bulblets at the top. Edible and unique.•
Allium cernuum
Nodding Wild Onion
Pink
July to Sept
12-18"Prairie
Savanna
full to part sunNodding 2" flower clusters above thin, wispy stems. Edible flower bulbs. ••
Allium stellatum
Prairie Onion
Pink
July to Sept
12-18"Dry Prairie Savannafull to part sunAttractive plants occurring in dry prairies and on rocky cliff areas. Good plant for tough sites and rock gardens. Ranging throughout MN and WI.••
Amorpha canescens
Leadplant
Blue
June to July
18-42"Prairie
Savanna
full sun to part shadeLong-lived shrub with attractive fine silvery foliage. Slow-growing but worth the wait. Used medicinally by Native Americans. Suited to driest sandy soil.••
Anaphilis margaritacea
Pearly Everlasting
White
June to Aug
18-24"Prairie
Savanna
Woodland
full sun to part shadeWhite papery strawflowers produced atop attractive whitish foliage. Nice dried flower and contrast plant in the perennial garden. Host plant for painted lady butterfly.••
Anemone canadensis
Canada Anemone
White May to July12-24"Prairie Savanna Forestfull sun to part shadeFine, showy clump-forming plant of mesic to moist prairies, forest margins and woodlands.•
Anemone cylindrica
Thimbleweed
White
Late May to July
16-20"Prairie
Savanna
Woodland
full sun to part shadeThimble-like infloresence held atop slender stems above highly divided basal leaves. Very pretty from summer into fall. Good on very dry sandy soils.••
Anemone patens
Pasque Flower
Light Blue
April to May
6"Prairie Savannafull to part sunOne of the first wildflowers in spring. Very showy 3" flowers followed by a cluster of hairy fruits. Dry soils. Great in rock gardens.•
Anemone virginiana
Northern Thimbleweed
White
Late May to July
18-30"Prairie
Woodland
Wetland
full sun to part shadeWidely adapted species found throughout most of the upper Midwest. Attractive foliage and nice flowers. Adapted to soils ranging from moist to moderately dry.••
Antennaria plantaginifolia
Plantain Pussy Toes
White
May to July
6-12"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeNice groundcover for dry habitats in all but full shade. Attractive white foliage, excellent lawn alternative for tough sites. Ranges through MN and WI.•
Aquilegia canadensis
Wild Columbine
Orange
May to June
20-36"Woodland
Forest
full sun to shadeFree-flowering woodland perennial that forms large clumps with attractive foliage. Excellent hummingbird plant. Often referred to as "honeysuckle."••
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Bearberry
Pink
May to June
20-36"Dry
Woodland
Forest
full sun to full shadeExcellent creeping evergreen shrub for moist to dry habitats in all but the deepest shade. Very common throughout most of MN and WI, particularly in the north. Excellent in the home landscape.•
Arisaema triphyllum
Jack in the Pulpit
Purple/
Green
May to June
18-30"Wet Forest Swamppart sun to shadeVery unusual flower stalk that emerges separately from 3-parted leaf. Great species for moist to wet forest restorations. Reliably spreads from seed once established. Ranges throughout MN and WI.•
Artemesia ludoviciana
Prairie Sage
Yellow
July to Oct
18-30"Prairie
Savanna
full to part sunFragrant whitish foliage makes a nice contrast to green plants. Dry to mesic prairies. Sacred incense and insect repellant of Native Americans.••
Asarum canadense
Wild Ginger
Maroon
May to June
6-12"Mesic to Moist Forestpart sun to full shadeBeautiful forest groundcover with nearly round leaves. Strong ginger fragrance. Unusual flowers held on ground said to be pollinated by beetles. A must for forest restorations and shady perennial gardens.•
Asclepias incarnata
Swamp Milkweed
Lavender
June to Aug
36-48"Prairie
Marsh
Lake Edge
full sun to part shadeShowy plant of moist to wet habitats. Host plant for monarch butterflies, very good nectar source for butterflies and hummingbirds. Great for lake edges.••
Asclepias syriaca
Common Milkweed
Pink
June to Aug
36"-60"Prairie
Marsh
Lake Edge
full sun to part sunLarge leaved, robust plant known for being the larval host for Monarch butterflies. Benefits many other pollinators as well. Easy and fast to establish.••
Asclepias tuberosa
Butterfly Weed
Orange
June to Sept
12-24"Prairie
Savanna
full to part sunA must for gardens, producing orange flowers in 3" clusters.Tolerates driest sandy soils. Host plant for monarch butterflies and nectar source for others.••
Asclepias verticillata Whorled MilkweedWhite July to Sept16-30"Prairie Savannafull to part sunVery fine-leaved milkweed. Host plant for monarch butterflies. Good nectar source for many butterflies. Very interesting texture for the wildflower garden. Widespread in prairie regions of MN and WI.••
Aster azureus
Sky Blue Aster
Blue
Aug to Oct
24-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeBears some of the truest blue flowers you can find. Great for vivid fall flowers and like other asters, an exceptional butterfly plant. Mesic to dry soil types. SE to central MN; throughout WI, except northcentral.•
Aster drummondiana
Drummond's Aster
Blue
Aug to Oct
12-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull to part sunAttractive blue-flowered aster of a variety of habitats and soils ranging from moist to moderately dry.•
Aster ericoides
Heath Aster
White
August to Oct
16-30"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeSpreading fine-leaved plants entirely covered with small white heads late summer into fall. Excellent contrast to broad-leaved plants. Tolerates driest sandy soils.•
Aster laevis
Smooth Aster
Blue
July to Oct
20-30"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeVery showy vibrant blue-flowered perennial. Several cultivated varieties exist, attesting to its beauty. Great butterfly plant and cutflower.••
Aster lateriflorus
Calico Aster
White
July to Oct
24-36"Savanna Woodland Forestpart sun to shadeCommon in savannas and forests with dry to moist soil types. Good quickly growing groundcover for semi-shade and shady restoration areas.••
Aster macrophyllus
Big Leaf Aster
Blue
Aug to Oct
8-18"Savanna Woodland Forestfull sun to shadeOne of the most common groundcovers of northern forests. Broad heart-shaped leaves make an great, fast-growing groundcover for all but the wettest soil types.••
Aster novae-angliae
New England Aster
Blue
Aug to Oct
24-48"Prairie Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadeNice perennial for moist to wet habitats. Commonly used as a garden perennial and for wet lake-edge plantings. Nectar source for butterflies. Range includes southern 2/3 of WI and SE to NW MN.••
Aster oblongifolius
Aromatic Aster
Violet
Aug to Oct
12-24"Dry Prairie Savannafull to part sunVery attractive low-grower for dry sandy prairies. Common throughout SE to NW MN and SW to NW WI. A must for short prairie restorations.••
Aster pilosus
Frost Aster
White
Aug to Oct
16-24"Prairie Marsh Lake Edgefull to part sunSpreading plants have white flower heads with yellow centers. Widely adapted to all prairie habitats and moist to wet marsh and lake edges.•
Aster prenanthoides
Crooked Stem Aster
Lavender
Aug to Oct
12-36"Prairie
Savanna
full sun to part shadeNice low-growing aster with zig-zagging stems covered with showy heads in late summer and fall. Native range includes SW WI and SE MN.••
Aster ptarmicoides
Upland White Aster
White
Aug to Oct
12-24"Prairie Savannafull to part sunLow, spreading plants covered with white heads late summer through fall. Mesic to dry prairies throughout MN and WI. Excellent in short prairies.••
Aster puniceus
Swamp Aster
Purple
Aug to Oct
36-56"Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadeCommon, showy aster of lake edges, swamps, bogs, and fens. Occurs throughout MN and WI.••
Aster sagittifolius
Arrow-leaved Aster
White to Blue
Aug to Oct
12-40"Woodland Forest Openingspart sun to shadeWidely adapted aster that occurs in mesic to dry forests throughout most of WI and SE to central MN. Very common in ditches and forest edges as well. Good for woodland restorations.••
Aster sericeus
Silky Aster
Purple
Aug to Oct
12-24"Prairie Savannafull to part sunAttractive mound-forming aster of dry prairies and savannas. Ranges throughout SE to NW MN and the southern 2/3 of WI.••
Aster simplex Panicled AsterWhite / Lavender Aug to Oct24-36"Wetland Forest Edgefull sun to part shadeVariable aster common in a wide range of wetland habitats. Attractive and easy to grow. Widespread throughout MN and WI.•
Aster umbellatus
Flat-topped Aster
White
July to Aug
30-42"Prairie Lake Edge Swampfull sun to full shadeWhite heads held in a broad terminal cluster. Common plant of moist to wet lake edges and moist to mesic forests. Excellent butterfly plant and cutflower. Ranges throughout MN and WI.••
Astragalus canadensis
Canada Milk-vetch
White
June to Aug
24-42"Prairie Lake Edge Woodlandfull sun to part shadeQuick growing plant of semi-shaded habitats, particularly at forest and lake edges. Adapted to soils ranging from dry to moist.••
Astragalus crassicarpus
Ground Plum
Purple
May to June
6-15"Prairie Savannafull to part sunLow, spreading plants of dry, rocky prairies. Great pods follow beautiful purple flowers in spring. Perfect for rock gardens. Widespread in MN from SE to NW. Restricted to far western WI.•
Baptisia alba
White Wild Indigo
White
June to Aug
30-42"Prairie Marsh Lake Edgefull to part sunLegume of moist to wet prairies and lake edges. Attractive foliage and flowers followed by pods. Nice in perennial gardens.•
Baptisia australis
Blue False Indigo
Blue
June to July
30-42"Prairie Savannafull to part sunStately perennial with glossy foliage and beautiful sky blue flower clusters. Excellent garden perennial. Native south of our range but tough enough for restorations here in NW WI.•
Baptisia bracteata
Cream Wild Indigo
Cream
May to July
30-42"Dry Prairie Open Woodsfull sun to part shadeImpressive plant that really catches the eye. Showy early flowers in long flower stalks followed by interesting inflated pods. Good on tough dry sites.•
Boltonia asteroides
White False Aster
White
Aug to Oct
40-60"Prairie
Marsh
Swamp
full to part sunAwesome tall plant covered with white/yellow daisies in the fall. Great cutflower and clearly a butterfly magnet. Nice background plant for perennial gardens.••
Cacalia atriplicifolia
Pale Indian Plantain
White
July to Sept
24-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeBroad white heads above attractive greyish foliage. Native in southern third of WI.••
Callirhoe triangulata
Clustered Poppy Mallow
Rose-Pink
July to Aug
8-12"Prairiefull sun to part shadeLow, spreading groundcover. Native to southwestern WI. Outstanding garden perennial.•
Caltha palustris
Marsh Marigold
Yellow
May to June
12-18"Swamp Peatlandpart sun to shadeHarbinger of spring. Usually associated with peaty ground and some flowing water, but can be planted on any wet ground. Great for pond edges.•
Campanula rotundifolia
Harebell
Blue
June to Sept
16-24"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeBlue bell-shaped flowers atop delicate, grassy foliage. Great plant for restorations. Common throughout WI in all dry habitats. Shade-tolerant.••
Cassia fasciculata
Partridge Pea
Yellow
July to Oct
24-42"Prairiefull sunVery attractive annual of the tallgrass prairie. Native on disturbed sites. Reseeds itself until soil stabilizes. Good background for annual flower gardens.•
Cassia marilandica
Maryland Senna
Yellow
July to Sept
36-72"Prairie
Savanna
Woodland
full sun to part shadeAttractive species of moist habitats with terminal clusters of yellow flowers. Very nice tall accent plant for the back of the perennial border. Native only to southern MN and WI, but hardy farther north.•
Caulophyllum thalictroides Blue CohoshWhite May to June8-18"Deciduous Forestfull to part shadeAttractive ferny foliage with a cluster of white flowers followed by attractive blue berries. Ranging throughout WI and MN.•
Chelone glabra
Turtlehead
White
July to Oct
24-36"Lake Edge
Peatland
full sun to part shadeSpikes of showy turtle-shaped flowers atop glossy dark green foliage. Nice for gardens and lake edge restorations. Widespread in MN and WI.••
Coreopsis lanceolata
Lance Leaf Coreopsis
Yellow
June to Aug
24-36"Dry Prairie Savannafull sun to part shadeWiry stems bearing yellow daisies. Easy to grow on toughest, driest soil types. Very good butterfly plant.••
Coreopsis palmata
Prairie Coreopsis
Yellow
June to Oct
16-30"Dry Prairie Savannafull sun to part shadeYellow daisies above ferny foliage. Native of driest prairies and bluff communities throughout southern 2/3 of MN and WI. Good for butterflies.••
Cornus canadensis Bunch BerryWhite
May to June
4-10"Forest Swamppart sun to shadeCreeping groundcover with very showy clusters of orange berries in summer. Slow growing but a must-have for woodland restoration and wildflower gardens.•
Dalea candida
White Prairie Clover
White
June to Sept
16-30"Dry Prairie Savannafull to part sunDense 2" clusters of small white flowers atop grayish ferny foliage. Very attractive perennial for prairie and savanna restorations as well as perennial gardens.••
Dalea purpurea
Purple Prairie Clover
Purple
June to Sept
16-30"Dry Prairie Savannafull to part sunSimilar to Dalea candida but with purple flowers. Both species are excellent butterfly plants. Used as tea by Native Americans.••
Delphinium virescens
Prairie Larkspur
Blue
June to July
24-36"Dry Prairie
Savanna
Woodland
full sun to part shadeInteresting native of dry habitats, particularly common in West-central and Northwestern WI and adjacent MN. Goes dormant early and first year plants tend to be quite small, requiring extra care.•
Desmodium canadense
Showy Tick Trefoil
Lavender
June to Sept
24-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeWidely adapted perennial legume that flowers over a long period. Open, spreading stems dance nicely in the breeze. Good for woodland habitats. Tolerates dry to moist sites.••
Dicentra cucullaria Dutchman's BreechesWhite May to June12"Deciduous Forestfull to part shadeSpring blooming woodland wildflower of mesic to moist forests throughout MN and WI.•
Dodecantheon meadia Shooting StarWhite May to June18"Prairie Savannafull to part sunCute plant with basal leaves and a leafless flowerstalk with shooting star-like white to pink flowers. Dry prairies, savannas, and woodlands on droughty soils. Rare in extreme SE MN and scattered in SW WI.•
Echinacea angustifolia
Narrow-Leaf Purple Coneflower
Lavender
July to Aug
24-36"Prairie Savannafull to part sunSaid to be the best of the purple coneflowers for medicinal purposes. Native in Western MN and further west, but hardy in this area. Very attractive with narrow leaves.••
Echinacea pallida
Pale Purple Coneflower
Lavender
July to Aug
24-36"Prairie Savannafull to part sunOnly echinacea species definitely native to WI. Nice narrow foliage. Heads have reflexed rays ("petals"). Can't beat these for butterflies.••
Echinacea purpurea
Purple Coneflower
Purple
July to Aug
24-36"Prairie Savannafull to part sunSpectacular display of broad-headed purple daisies. Native at least to Northern IL. Great for restorations and perennial gardens.••
Epigaea repens
Trailing Arbutus
White
April to May
6"Forestpart sun to shadeUnique creeping groundcover with small, trumpet-shaped fragrant flowers in very early spring. Found in forests of central to northern WI and northeastern MN.•
Epilobium angustifolium
Fireweed
Purple
June to Aug
36-48"Woodland Forest
Clearcuts
full to part sunStately northwoods roadside plant with terminal clusters of showy purple flowers. A few plants will spread nicely to form a large stand. An exceptional hummingbird plant.•
Eryngium yuccifolium
Rattlesnake Master
White
July to Oct
28-42"Prairie Savannafull to part sunExotic-looking plant that resembles a desert yucca. Bristly white heads and whitish foliage make it a great background perennial as well as a tough fast grower for restorations.••
Erythronium americanum Trout LilyYellow May to June8"Deciduous Forestfull to part shadeYellow flowered, low growing lily with shield-like mottled leaves. Found in mesic to moist forests in eastern MN and throughout WI.•
Eupatorium maculatum
Spotted Joe-Pye Weed
Purple
July to Sept
24-48"Wet Prairie Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadeGood lake edge perennial with broad flat-topped clusters of purple heads. Excellent butterfly plant. Ranges throughout MN and WI.••
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Boneset
White
June to Aug
24-42"Prairie Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadeNice lake edge plants with flat-topped cluster of white heads. Very nice purplish foliage with opposite fused leaves. Used medicinally to hasten healing of bones. Ranges throughout MN and WI.••
Eupatorium purpureum
Purple Joe Pye Weed
Purple
July to Sept
24-36"Savanna Woodland Forestpart sun to shadeMoist to moderately dry savannas and forests through southern 2/3 of WI and eastern 1/2 of MN. Very attractive broad clusters of purple heads. Excellent for attracting butterflies.••
Eupatorium rugosum
White Snakeroot
White
July to Sept
24-36"Savanna Woodland Forestfull sun to shadeA widely adapted species primarily of disturbed woodlands and forests. Tolerant of wet to dry conditions. Found throughout WI and southern MN.••
Euphorbia corollata
Flowering Spurge
White
May to Sept
24-40"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeWidely adapted species of dry to moist soils. Attractive white flowers occur throughout the summer. Throughout WI and SE MN.•
Euthamia graminifolia
Grass Leaf Goldenrod
Yellow
July to Oct
24-30"Prairie Marsh
Lake Edge
full to part sunCommon on lake shores in the northwoods. Fine foliage makes it of some use in perennial gardens. Ranges throughout MN and WI.•
Fragaria vesca
Woodland Strawberry
White
May to June
6-10"Prairie Forestfull sun to shadeAttractive groundcover that grows rapidly. A must for the woodland restoration. Sweet tasting red fruits in June are a bonus. Ranges throughout the world in northern latitudes including all of MN and WI.••
Fragaria virginiana Wild StrawberryWhite
May to June
6"Prairie Savanna Forestfull sun to shadeStoloniferous spreading groundcover bearing delicious red berries. Found throughout MN and WI ranging from prairies to forests. Widely adapted to soils ranging from dry to moist or even wet.•
Gaillardia aristata
Gaillardia Blanket Flower
Yellow/Red
June to Sept
16-30"Prairie Savannafull to part sunMany 3" heads with clawed yellow/red striped ray petals. Great for cutting and butterflies. Native in NW MN and further west, but well-adapted to dry prairies in our area.••
Galium boreale
Northern Bedstraw
White
June to July
16-24"Woodland
Forest
full sun to full shadeCommon understory species of northern forests in MN & WI. Easy to grow on mesic to dry soils.••
Gaultheria procumbens
Wintergreen
Pink
May to June
6"Forestpart sun to shadeEvergreen groundcover with persistent red berries. A must for the woodland garden or restoration. Leaves used in teas. Wide-ranging in MN and WI.•
Gentiana alba
White Bottle Gentian
White
Aug to Oct
18-30"Prairie Marsh
Lake Edge
full to part sunVery nice white bottle-shaped flowers. Tolerant of drier conditions than blue gentian and equally beautiful. First year plants require extra attention.•
Gentiana andrewsii
Blue Bottle Gentian
Blue
Aug to Oct
18-30"Prairie Marsh
Lake Edge
full to part sunBeautiful slow-growing perennial with 3" bottle shaped flowers at top of stems. Blooms in second year if competition is minimized. Awesome blue fall color. Small first year seedlings require extra attention.•
Geranium maculatum
Wild Geranium
Pink
May to June
18"Woodland Savanna Forestfull to part shadeTolerant to all soils and woodland conditions except deeply shaded situations. Nice perennial geranium with attractive foliage that turns red in fall.•
Geum triflorum
Prairie Smoke
Red
May to June
6-12"Dry Prairie Woodlandfull to part sunAwesome early-flowering prairie wildflower, great for sandy site restorations and for rock gardening. Hairy fruits remain attractive throughout the year.•
Helenium autumnale
Sneezeweed
Yellow
July to Oct
30-48"Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to shadeSneezeweed won't make you sneeze - it was used as an expectorant by Native Americans. Gaillardia -like heads in abundance. Good butterfly plant.••
Helianthus grosseserratus
Sawtooth Sunflower
Yellow
July to Oct
48-96"Swamp Prairie Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeA stately sunflower producing an abundance of heads which attract butterflies in flower and finches in fruit.••
Helianthus maxmillianii
Maxmillian Sunflower
Yellow
Aug to Oct
72"+Swamp Prairie Lake Edgefull to part sunGreat background plant for the perennial garden. A must for bird and butterfly gardens. Native to a wide variety of habitats throughout MN and into western WI.••
Helianthus occidentalis
Western Sunflower
Yellow
July to Sept
24-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeA component of dry habitats through much of WI. Bears several yellow heads on top of mostly leafless flower stalks.•
Helianthus strumosus
Woodland Sunflower
Yellow
July to Oct
36-48"Woodland Forestfull sun to part shadeVery common woodland sunflower seen at the edge of forests and ditches. Variable but showy with terminal yellow heads. Birds eat seeds. Excellent soil stabilizer. Throughout WI and southern 2/3 of MN.••
Heliopsis helianthoides
False Sunflower
Yellow June to Oct24-42"Prairie Savanna Lake Edgefull to part sunWidespread on dry to wet soils. Long flowering period. Suited to all but very shady restoration sites. Commonly used as a garden perennial.••
Hepatica americana Rounded HepaticaWhite / Lavender April to May6"Deciduous Northern Forestpart shade to shadeOne of the earliest blooming wildflowers. Forms very attractive clumps with glossy green evergreen three-lobed liver-shaped leaves. Highly recommended for woodland gardens and shady restorations. Widespread throughout MN and WI.•
Heuchera richardsonii
Alum Root
White
May to July
12-18"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeCommon through most of WI and MN. Attractive, tough ground cover well suited to dry soils. Quite shade-tolerant. Usually associated with rock outcrops in prairies, woodlands, and forests.••
Hypericum pyramidatum
Great St. John's Wort
Yellow
June to Sept
50-72"River-
bottoms Swamp
full sun to part shadeFound throughout WI and eastern MN mostly on moist to wet gravelly soils along creeks and rivers. Semi-shrubby plants have showy yellow flowers.•
Iris versicolor
Northern Blue Flag Iris
Blue
June to July
24-36"Marsh
Peatland
Lake Edge
full to part sunCommon on lake margins throughout northern WI and MN. Very attractive, forming large clumps. Some consider this to be synonymous with Iris virginica.••
Iris virginica (shrevei)
Blue Flag Iris
Blue
June to July
24-36"Marsh Peatland Lake Edgefull to part sunCommon attractive lake edge iris, forming huge clumps. Very nice in flower and fruit. Some consider this to be synonymous with Iris versicolor. Found throughout most of MN and WI.••
Lespedeza capitata
Bush Clover
White
July to Oct
24-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeRather inconspicuous flowers in dense terminal cluster. Brown fruit clusters make it attractive for winter gardening. Great for sandy site restorations.••
Liatris aspera
Rough Blazing Star
Purple
July to Sept
18-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull to part sunBeautiful purple spikes. Most common liatris of dry, sandy prairies throughout MN and WI. Excellent butterfly plant.••
Liatris cylindracea
Dwarf Blazing Star
Purple
July to Oct
8-24"Dry Prairie
Savanna
full to part sunUnique dwarf blazing star of extemely dry, sandy soils throughout most of the prairie regions of MN and WI. Good garden specimen in well-drained soil.••
Liatris ligulistylis
Northern Plains Blazing Star
Purple
July to Aug
24-42"Prairie Savannafull to part sunRosy heads appear in abundance on tall spikes. Beautiful plant among the best to attract butterflies. OK on wet and dry soils.••
Liatris punctata
Dotted Blazing Star
Purple
July to Sept
18-30"Prairie Savannafull to part sunRanging throughout the prairie regions of MN and extreme western WI where it's considered rare. Dry prairie species that attracts butterflies.•
Liatris pychnostachya
Thick Spike Blazing Star
Purple
July to Sept
24-36"Prairie Marsh Lake Edgefull to part sunDense purple spikes. Good for moist and wet restoration sites. Very showy, good butterfly plant. Ranges throughout prairie regions of MN and WI.••
Liatris spicata
Marsh Blazing Star
Purple
July to Aug
24-36"Prairie
Marsh
Lake Edge
full to part sunMost common liatris for perennial gardening. Grows well in any condition. Perfect pollinator plant. Native into SE WI. Moist to wet soils.••
Liatris squarossa
Scaly Blazing Star
Purple
July to Aug
12-30"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeNice low-growing plant of dry prairies to woodlands just south of MN and WI but plenty hardy here. Good in dry, tough rocky sites. Excellent for butterflies.•
Lobelia cardinalis
Cardinal Flower
Red
July to Oct
36-48"Prairie Marsh Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeShowy spikes of red flowers are the best for attracting hummingbirds. Suited to moist soils particularly along waterways. Native through most of WI.••
Lobelia siphilitica
Great Blue Lobelia
Blue
July to Oct
20-30"Marsh Peatland Swampfull sun to part shadeWidely adapted to wet and moist soils. Vivid blue and white-striped flowers in terminal spikes. Compact and well suited to perennial gardens.••
Lupinus perennis
Wild Blue Lupine
Blue
May to July
16-24"Prairie Savannafull to part sunVivid blue flowers in tall spikes. Very compact. Good in perennial gardens. Suited to dry sunny sites. Host plant for threatened Karner Blue butterfly. First year plants are small, requiring extra care.••
Lycopus americanus American BugleweedWhite
June to July
12-30"Lake Edge Marsh Swampfull sun to shadeCommon in most wetland types mostly on mucky soils left after water recedes. Excellent for pond and lake edge restorations. Ranges throughout MN and WI.•
Mentha arvensis
Field Mint
Lavender
June to Aug
12-24"Lake Edge Marsh Swampfull sun to shadeFast grower found in wetland areas. Perfect for mucky soils, pond and lake edge restorations. Ranges throughout MN and WI.•
Mertensia virginiana
Virginia Bluebells
Blue
May to June
18-24"Woodland Forestpart to full shadeClusters of bell-shaped blue flowers in spring. Nice woodland wildflower. Dies back by midsummer, but are plantable while dormant.•
Mimulus ringens
Monkeyflower
Lavender
July to Sept
18-24"Marsh Lake Edge Swampfull sun to part shadeLavender spikes of 1" snapdragon flowers that look like small monkeys. Compact plants. Excellent for lakescaping.••
Mitchella repens
Partridgeberry
White
May to June
4"Moist to Dry Forestpart sun to full shadeEvergreen creeping groundcover with paired white flowers in early summer followed by bright, showy red berries that persist through winter. Excellent in woodland restorations or in the shady garden.•
Mitella diphylla Bishop's CapWhite May to June12"Deciduous Forestfull to part shadeNice woodland groundcover of mesic to moist deciduous forests in most of WI and southeastern MN. Keeps its greenness throughout the summer.•
Monarda fistulosa
Bergamot
Lavender
July to Aug
36-48"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeOne of the most common and widespread native wildflowers. Good in herbal teas. Used medicinally by Native Americans. Moist to dry soils.••
Monarda punctata
Dotted Mint
Lavender
June to Sept
18-30"Prairie Savannafull to part sunFragrant herb with showy dotted multicolored leaves below flowers. Good on dry soils. Used medicinally and in herbal teas. Nice cutflower.••
Parthenium integrifolium
Wild Quinine
White
June to July
24-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeAttractive plant with unique foliage. Once commercially exploited as a source of quinine. Native of dry and mesic habitats and a variety of light conditions. Its northern range is into southern WI.••
Penstemon digitalis
Smooth Penstemon
White
June to July
24-30"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shade1.5" white tubular flowers in tall spikes. Good garden perennial and cutflower. Tolerant of dry and mesic soils and a variety of light conditions.••
Penstemon grandiflorus
Large Flowered
Beard-tongue
Lavender
June to July
24-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeHuge trumpet shaped flowers in spikes above glossy leaves. Very attractive in prairies and perennial gardens. Adapted to dry, sandy soil.•
Phlox divaricata
Woodland Phlox
Blue
June to July
12-18"Forestpart sun to shadeBeautiful fragrant spring wildflower occurring in forests ranging from mesic to floodplain. Excellent for shady restorations and gardens.•
Phlox pilosa
Prairie Phlox
Pink
May to June
18-24"Prairie Savannafull to part sunBroad heads of deep pink flowers. Very nice wildflower for restorations and perennial gardens.•
Physostegia virginiana
Obedient Plant
Pink
July to Oct
24-36"Prairie Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadePopular garden perennial native to moist prairies, lakeside and streamside wetlands.••
Podophyllum peltatum MayappleWhite May to June12-18"Deciduous Forestfull to part sunUnique spring ephemeral of rich forests throughout the southern 2/3 of WI and SE MN. Plant bears a single, large, nodding, fragrant flower which becomes a yellow fruit. Large, jagged, umbrella-shaped leaf offers relief from the rain for gnomes and trolls.•
Polemonium reptans
Jacob's Ladder
Blue
May to June
18"Woodland Forestpart sun to full shadeBeautiful spring woodland wildflower. Ferny leaves resemble a ladder. A must for woodland gardens and restorations.•
Pontaderia cordata Pickerel WeedBlue June to July24"Lake / Pond Marginsfull sunEmergent aquatic plant with beautiful blue flower spikes above deep green, glossy foliage. Grows in water up to 18" deep but should be started in very shallow water and allowed to creep out.•
Potentilla tridentata
Wine-leaf Potentilla
White
May to June
6"Rocky Outcropsfull to part sunAttractive creeping groundcover growing in cracks on rock outcrops. Great in the rock garden. Wine-red fall foliage color. Great Lakes region.•
Pycnanthemum virginianum
Mountain Mint
White
July to Sept
24-36"Prairie Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadeFine leaved mint of wet prairies and wetlands. Very attractive foliage. Good for perennial gardens as well as lake edge restorations.••
Ratibida columnifera
Prairie Coneflower
Yellow or Red
July to Sept
12-20"Prairie Savannafull to part sunNative to central and western portions of the Great Plains including western MN. Low growing plant of dry prairies. Very attractive heads. Red form called "Mexican Hat."••
Ratibida pinnata
Yellow Coneflower
Yellow
July to Oct
24-52"Prairie Savannafull to part sunOne of the more common native prairie wildflowers. Very attractive to butterflies. Greyish foliage makes this a nice contrast plant.••
Rudbeckia fulgida
Orange Coneflower
Orange-Yellow
July to Oct
24-36"Fen
Marsh Lake Edge
full to part sunBeautiful compact coneflower with deep green foliage and 3" orange-yellow heads with brown centers. Parent of 'goldsturm', one of the most popular garden perennials.••
Rudbeckia hirta
Black Eyed Susan
Yellow
June to Oct
24-36"Prairie Savannafull to part sunVery common short-lived perennial occurring in a wide range of habitats. Produces lots of color the first year.••
Rudbeckia laciniata
Wild Goldenglow
Yellow
July to Sept
36-48"Prairie Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeFound throughout WI, primarily in swamp habitats and along lakes and streams, but also in prairies. Good for moist, shaded restoration sites.••
Rudbeckia subtomentosa
Sweet Black Eyed Susan
Yellow
July to Sept
24-36"Prairie Stream Edgefull to part sunVery attractive yellow heads in profusion atop deep green glossy leaves. Good for restorations and perennial gardens. Native into SW WI.••
Rudbeckia triloba
Brown Eyed Susan
Yellow
July to Oct
24-36"Prairie Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadeOutstanding coneflower with numerous heads which are smaller than other species, but more abundant. Very nice foliage. Should be grown more widely in perennial beds. Mesic to wet soils.••
Ruellia humilis
Wild Petunia
Pink
June to Sept
12"Prairiefull sunVery nice low growing perennial. Great in the front of a border. Native to dry prairies as far north as Southern WI.•
Salvia azurea
Blue Sage
Blue
Aug to Oct
42-60"Prairiefull sunAwesome deep blue flowers in late summer and fall. Great for fall color in perennial gardens. Native south of WI and MN, but hardy here.•
Sanguinaria canadensis BloodrootWhite April to June8"Forestfull to part shadeSpring blooming woodland wildflower found throughout the forest supporting regions of MN and WI. Single, jagged umbrella shaped leaf is accompanied by a single, large, showy white flower.•
Silene regia
Royal Catchfly
Red
June to Oct
18-24"Prairie
Savanna
full sun to part shadeDeep red tubular flowers flaring out into a star. Excellent hummingbird plant and garden perennial. Native just south of MN and WI, but hardy in the north.••
Silphium integrifolium
Rosinweed
Yellow
June to Sept
24-36"Prairie
Savanna
full to part sunWet to dry prairies. Range includes southern half of WI. Attractive sunflower heads. Glossy resinous foliage.••
Silphium laciniatum
Compass Plant
Yellow
July to Aug
48-96"Prairie
Savanna
full to part sunAwesome tall sunflower with broad, highly divided basal leaves. Heads track the sun. Very cool plant. Excellent for attracting finches.••
Silphium perfoliatum
Cup Plant
Yellow
July to Sept
48-72"Prairie
Marsh
Lake Edge
full sun to part shadeImpressive sunflower with numerous broad yellow heads. Unusual opposite leaves fuse to make cups which collect water for bird bathing. Birds love it!••
Silphium terebinthinaceum
Prairie Dock
Yellow
July to Sept
48-72"Prairie
full sunUnusual, huge toothed basal leaves make this worth growing, even when it doesn't flower. Lots of sunflower heads produce seeds that attract birds.••
Smilacina racemosa False Solomon SealWhite May to June18-24"Forestfull to part shadeTwo-foot tall leafy stemmed lily with a terminal cluster of small white flowers, each of which becomes a red berry. Found through forest regions of MN and WI.•
Solidago flexicaulis
Zig Zag Goldenrod
Yellow
Aug to Sept
24"Woodland Forestpart to full shadeGood woodland perennial for restorations. Unique zig-zag stems with scattered yellow heads. Very different than most goldenrods. Moist to mesic soils.••
Solidago nemoralis Grey GoldenrodYellow July to Sept24"Prairie Savannafull sun to part shadeDry prairies to woodlands throughout MN and WI. Excellent species for dry site restorations.••
Solidago ohiensis
Ohio Goldenrod
Yellow
Aug to Sept
36-42"Prairie
Wetland
full sunAttractive flat-topped heads. Suitable for moist to wet lake edge restorations. Very good butterfly plant.••
Solidago rigida
Stiff Goldenrod
Yellow
Aug to Sept
24-36"Prairie Savanna Lake Edgefull to part sunAnother goldenrod worthy of growing for its very attractive foliage. Topped with a broad, flat cluster of yellow heads. Adapted to mesic and moist soils. Good garden perennial.••
Solidago speciosa
Showy Goldenrod
Yellow
Aug to Sept
24-36"Prairie Savannafull sun to part shadeHighly recommended for restorations and for perennial gardens. Very showy tall heads above glossy green foliage. Great butterfly plant.••
Tephrosia virginica
Goat's Rue
Pink
June to July
18-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeShrubby legume with ferny whitish foliage and beautiful multicolored 1" flowers in large terminal clusters. Good for dry soils. •
Thalictrum dasycarpum
Purple Meadow Rue
White to Pink
June to July
40-50"Prairie Lake Edge Swampfull sun to part shadeBeautiful dark green, highly divided, columbine-like foliage with open sprays of frilly flowers. Excellent for moist to wet sites in all but fully shaded light levels.••
Thalictrum dioicum
Early Meadow Rue
White
May to June
24"Woodland
Forest
part to full shadeNice woodland wildflower for all but the driest sandy soils. Pretty flower heads held above columbine-like foliage. Nice in the shaded perennial garden.•
Tiarella cordifolia FoamflowerWhite
May to June
12"Deciduous Forestpart sun to full shadeWoodland wildflower of maple forests with attractive foliage and terminal clusters of white flowers. Rare in east central MN and eastern WI, but hardy throughout.•
Tradescantia bracteata
Prairie Spiderwort
Blue
June to Aug
18-30"Prairie
Savanna
full to part sunAttractive clump-forming plant topped with showy blue flowers for much of the summer. Adapted to most mesic and dry prairie regions of MN and western WI.•
Tradescantia ohiensis
Ohio Spiderwort
Blue
June to Oct
24-48"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeForms large clumps creating a very nice display of 1" flowers in heads on top of each stem. Great for restorations and gardens. Moist to dry soils.•
Trillium grandiflorum TrilliumWhite May8-12"Deciduous Forestpart shade to shadeSpectacular 2" white 3-petaled flowers in May. This harbinger of spring will let you know that winter is finally over! Widespread in WI and MN forests.•
Uvularia grandiflora Yellow BellwortYellow May to June12"Deciduous Forestpart shade to shadeOne of the nicest spring woodland wildflowers with nodding bell-shaped yellow flowers. Widespread in forests throughout MN and WI.•
Verbena hastata
Blue Vervain
Blue
June to Sept
36-48"Prairie Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadeTall spikes of blue flowers really attract butterflies. Great for shoreland restorations on mesic to saturated soils. Throughout MN and WI.••
Verbena stricta
Hoary Vervain
Blue
June to Sept
24-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeSpikes of blue flowers above greyish foliage. Adapted to dry, sandy soils. Good butterfly plant.••
Vernonia fasciculata
Ironweed
Rose-Pink
July to Sept
24-42"Prairie Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadeBroad, flat clusters of pink heads to 5" across. Very attractive to butterflies. Good in moist to wet soils for lake edge landscaping. Wide ranging in MN and WI.••
Veronicastrum virginianum
Culver's Root
White
June to Sept
36-54"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeSeveral tall showy spikes on top of each stem make this an excellent tall garden perennial. Attracts butterflies. Good in most soils except extemely dry.••
Viola cuculata Wood VioletLavender May to June12"Forest Swamppart sun to full shadeCommon quick spreading wildflower of mesic, moist, to wet forests throughout WI and eastern MN.•
Viola pedatifida
Prairie Violet
Blue
May to June
4"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shade1.5" blue flowers above deeply clawed foliage. Very nice for edging restoration sites on dry to mesic soils and for rock gardening. Common in prairie regions of MN and WI.•
Zizia aptera
Heart-leaf Golden Alexanders
Yellow
May to June
18-30"Prairie Savannafull sun to part shadeClosely resembles Zizia aurea except for shape of young leaves. Throughout MN and SE to NW WI. Nice for early summer flowers.••
Zizia aurea
Golden Alexanders
Yellow
May to July
18-30"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeEarly-flowering plant of mesic to moist habitats with 3" flat-topped heads of yellow flowers. Seed heads that follow are attractive throughout the year. ••
Grasses, sedges, and rushes
Acorus calamus
Sweet Flag
Yellow
July to Aug
36"Marsh Peatland Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeUnusual plant with attractive yellowish foliage and sweet fragrance when crushed. Forms beautiful clumps on lake margins. Great for water gardens.••
Andropogon gerardii
Big Bluestem
Purplish Green
July to Sept
36-72+"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeOne of the most dominant tall prairie grasses. Purplish foliage creates a nice effect along with turkey-foot-like flower head. Dry to moist habitats.••
Bouteloua curtipendula
Side Oats Grama
Red-Green
July to Sept
18-30"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeVery common species of dry to mesic habitats. Stamens are red, making them beautiful cutflowers when fresh. A must for any open dry site restoration.••
Bouteloua gracilis
Blue Grama
Purplish Green
July to Sept
12"Prairie Savannafull to part sunNative through the central Great Plains into western WI. Very good lawn alternative. Low growing, forming attractive clumps.••
Bromus ciliatus
Fringed Brome
Green
June to July
24-36"Prairie Wetland Forestfull sun to shadeWidely adapted species of habitats from saturated wetlands to mesic upland forests and roadsides. Very good grower for shady restoration sites. Found throughout MN and WI.••
Bromus kalmii
Kalm's Brome
Green
June to July
24-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeWidely adapted to habitats ranging from dry prairie to swampy thickets. Rapidly growing rhizomatous species. Very common in dry sand barren, open pine, and oak woodlands.••
Calamagrostis canadensis
Blue Joint Reedgrass
Straw
July to Aug
36-48"Prairie Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadeFine-leaved grass forms a dense cover on lake margins. One of the grasses displaced by reed canary grass and a good one to plant after nuking RCG. Purplish foliage.••
Carex bebbii
Bebb's Sedge
Green
May to June
24-36"Marsh Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeForms dense clumps on moist to saturated soil. Very common in most wetland areas throughout MN and WI.••
Carex bicknellii Bicknell's SedgeTan May to June12-24"Dry to Wet Prairie Savannafull to part sunSedge adapted to habitats ranging from dry to moist, usually on rocky, gravelly soil. Forms nice clumps. Found throughout southern 2/3 of MN and WI.••
Carex comosa
Bottlebrush Sedge
Green
May to June
24-42"Marsh Peatland Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeBeautiful clumps of yellowish stems on lake margins. Nodding flower spikes look like a bottlebrush. Excellent for restorations and water gardens.••
Carex crinita
Caterpillar Sedge
Green
May to June
30-42"Marsh Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeClump-forming. 4" nodding spikes resemble a caterpillar. Very nice for wet site restorations and for water gardens. Excellent for control of shoreland erosion.••
Carex gracillima Graceful SedgeGreen
May to June
18-30"Forestfull sun to full shadeClump forming plant of mesic to moist forests throughout MN and WI. Attractive nodding flower spikes.•
Carex hystricina
Porcupine Sedge
Green
May to June
24-42"Swamp Marsh Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeVery similar to Carex comosa. Very attractive plants for shoreland restorations and water gardening.••
Carex intumescens Bladder SedgeYellow May to June18-30"Forest Swampfull sun to part shadeCommon clump forming coarse-leafed sedge with huge flowers. Widespread in MN and WI.•
Carex lacustris
Lake Sedge
Green
May to June
30-48"Marsh Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeCoarse, rhizomatous sedge with attractive bluish foliage. Forms large stands on peaty lake edges with saturated to slightly inundated soil. Excellent for erosion control.•
Carex lupulina
Hop Sedge
Green
May to June
24-42"Swamp Marsh Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeFlower spikes resemble hops clusters. Stout-stemmed clump former of a wide variety of wet habitats, including shady swamps. Very good for shady rain gardens.••
Carex muhlenbergii
Sand-bracted Sedge
Green
May to June
12"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeLow-growing clump forming sedge of dry prairies throughout much of WI and SE MN. Nice species for tough site restorations. Excellent no-mow lawn alternative.•
Carex pennsylvanica
Pennsylvania Sedge
Brown
May
6-8"Dry to Mesic Forestfull sun to full shadeOutstanding, low, clump-forming graminoid with yellow-green foliage. Forms extensive stands in northwoods forests that are extremely attractive. A must for forest restorations in northern MN and WI.•
Carex retrorsa Deflexed Bottlebrush SedgeYellow May to June24-36"Swamp Marshfull sun to part shadeClump forming sedge of swamps and margins with cool, reflexed flower spikes. Widespread in MN and WI.•
Carex scoparia
Lance Fruit Oval Sedge
Tan
May to June
24-36"Marsh Wetland Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeClump forming sedge found in most wetland areas and lake edge habitats throughout MN and WI. Very good fast-growing species.•
Carex sprengelii
Long Beaked Sedge
Green
June to July
18"Woodland Forestpart sun to full shadeClump forming sedge of mesic to moist forests and stream sides. Very attractive plants with nodding spikes. Good for forest restorations.•
Carex stipata
Awl Fruit Sedge
Green
May to June
16-40"Swamp Marsh Lake Edgefull sun to full shadeCommon, coarse clump forming sedge found in a wide variety of wet habitats throughout MN and WI. Very good fast grower. Shade tolerant species.•
Carex stricta
Tussock Sedge
Green
May to June
24-36"Swamp Marsh Peatlandfull sun to part shadeForms dense clumps of closely clustered fine stems in a variety of wetlands and lake margins. Good shoreland and water garden plant.•
Carex vulpinoidea Fox SedgeGreen May to June18-30"Swamp Marsh Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeBeautiful clump-forming sedge of lake and wetland margins. Very attractive multi-tiered flower spikes persist through the summer and into the fall.••
Danthonia spicata Poverty Oat GrassTan June12"Dry Prairie Dry Forestfull sun to shadeA very common grass of tough habitats. Found throughout MN and WI on the droughtiest gravelly and rocky soils in full sun to full shade. Excellent species for revegetating degraded soils in the north.••
Eleocharis palustris
Creeping Spikerush
Brown
June to July
24-40"Swamp
Marsh
Lake Edge
full sun to part shadeCommon and widespread through the region in marshes and swamps and often in shallow water on lake margins. Forms relatively large stands, particularly in the north.•
Elymus canadensis
Canada Wild Rye
Green
July to Aug
36-48"Prairie Savanna Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeVery good cover crop for restorations. Grows rapidly, binding exposed soil. Attractive infloresences. Tolerates soils ranging from wet to dry.••
Elymus hystrix (patula)
Bottlebrush Grass
Green
June to July
36-48"Forest Woodland Lake Edgefull sun to full shadeClump forming grass with tall spikes topped with an infloresence that looks like a bottlebrush. A must for forest restorations and shady perennial gardens.••
Glyceria canadensis
Rattlesnake Manna Grass
Green
July to Aug
24-36"Lake Edge Marsh Peatlandfull sun to part shadeRhizomatous grass most typical of shallow water environments along lakes and ponds. Flower clusters resemble a rattlesnake tail. Very attractive.•
Glyceria grandis
Giant Manna Grass
Purple
July to Aug
48-72"Lake Edge Swamp Peatlandfull sun to part shadeRhizomatous grass, usually growing in shallow pools and in shallow water along stagnant lake margins. Pretty open purple flower clusters. Produces good cover for waterfowl.•
Glyceria striata
Fowl Manna Grass
Green
July to Aug
24-36"Forest Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to full shadeLow clump forming grass common next to small pools in swamps, in moist to seasonally wet forests, and along waterways.••
Hierochloe odorata
Sweet Grass
Green
May to June
12-24"Lake Edge
Prairie
Marsh
full sun to part shadeWidespread in MN and WI mostly on wetland margins on moist to wet soils. Sacred plant for Native Americans, used for braiding and basket-weaving. Revered for its sweet, aromatic vanilla-like fragrance.•
Juncus balticus
Baltic Rush
Green
June to July
18-36"Marsh
Swamp
Lake Edge
full sun to part shadeRhizomatous species with stiff, wirey stems. Widespread species of wet to inundated soils throughout MN and WI. Good water garden plant.•
Juncus effusus
Soft Rush
Brown
July to Aug
24-48"Swamp Marsh Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeDeep green wirey stems in large clumps along waterways and in a variety of wetlands. Evergreen plants remain attractive into winter.••
Juncus tenuis
Path Rush
Brown
June to July
to 16"Wetland Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeVery common, widespread plant of wet places throughout MN and WI. Nice for restoration site margins. Easy to grow. Forms attractive clumps.••
Juncus torreyi
Torrey's Rush
Brown
June to Aug
18-30"Marsh Lake Edgefull to part sunWirey succulent foliage topped with pom-pon like brown heads. Rhizomatous perennial. Good contrast plant for shoreland restorations.•
Koeleria macrantha
June Grass
Green
June to July
12-24"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeClump-forming grass, most commonly associated with dry sandy soils. Low-grower suitable for edging native restoration plantings.••
Leersia oryzoides
Rice Cut Grass
Tan
July to Sept
16-30"Shallow Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeDesirable species for shallow lake and pond edge restoration despite its serrated cutting leaves. Common throughout MN and WI.•
Panicum virgatum
Switch Grass
Purple
June to Oct
36-96"Prairie Swamp Lake Edgefull to part sunFast growing clump former with attractive open infloresence. Suited to soils ranging from mesic to wet. Good for steep banks and slopes.••
Schizachyrium scoparium
Little Bluestem
Amber
July to Sept
18-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeFabulous ornamental grass native to dry, sandy to mesic habitats throughout the region. Amber foliage maintains color through winter. Forms neat clumps.••
Scirpus acutus
Hard Stem Bulrush
Green
June to July
48-80"Lake Edge
Marsh
full to part sunTall, arching, deep-green stems typically in large rhizomatous stands on shallow lake margins. Great wave break and fish habitat.•
Scirpus atrovirens
Green Bulrush
Brown
June to July
36-48"Marsh Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeCoarse clump forming plant with nice clusters of small brown heads. Suitable for wet shoreland zones.••
Scirpus cyperinus
Wool Grass
Brown
June to July
36-48"Marsh Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeCoarse clump former with brown fuzzy heads that appear wooly. One of the most common lake edge species throughout the region.••
Scirpus fluviatilis
River Bulrush
Brown
June to July
48-96"Marsh
Pond
Lake Edge
full to part sunImpressive tall, coarse, leafy-stemmed bulrush that frequents shallow margins of streams and lakes. Deep green foliage, three ranked leaves and attractive spikes are exceptional. Widespread in MN and WI.•
Scirpus microcarpus
Small Fruited Bulrush
Brown
June to July
36-48"Marsh Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeRhizomatous species very similar to Scirpus atrovirens. Very common throughout MN and WI. Forms very large attractive clumps on moist to wet soils.•
Scirpus pungens
Three Square Bulrush
Brown
June to July
24-48"Shallow Lake Edge Marshfull to part sunWidespread and occasionally dominant species of shallow lake margins and marshes throughout MN on sandy, rocky, or mucky soils. Very good, attractive species for lake edge restorations.•
Scirpus validus
Soft Stem Bulrush
Brown
July to Aug
48-72"Marsh Swamp Lake Edgefull to part sunForms clumps or spreading rhizomatous stands in shallow water throughout the region. Stands of this species can help deflect boat waves and prevent bank erosion.•
Sorghastrum nutans
Indian Grass
Amber
July to Sept
48-72"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeClump-forming grass of dry, sandy to moist habitats. Very ornamental and suitable for the back of perennial borders. Great plant for a wide range of habitats.••
Spartina pectinata
Prairie Cordgrass
Yellow
Aug to Oct
48-72"Prairie Marsh Lake Edgefull to part sunRhizomatous grass forming large clumps in sandy soil, usually near the water table, although sometimes under dry conditions. Very common shoreland plant in northern WI and MN.••
Sporobolus heterolepis
Prairie Dropseed
Green
Aug to Oct
18-36"Prairie Savannafull to part sunClump former with open, fine sprays of flowers. Popular as a garden perennial. Native to dry and mesic prairies throughout the region.••
Stipa spartea
Porcupine Grass
Purple
June to July
24-36"Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull to part sunUnique rhizomatous grass bearing nodding purple heads. Attractive long-awned fruits twist as humidity changes. Found in very dry, sandy habitats.•
Ferns
Adiantum pedatum
Maidenhair Fern
24"Forest Swamppart to full shadeGraceful stems with soft highly divided leaves in a U-shaped pattern. Slow-starting but eventually forms nice clumps. Moist to wet forests.•
Athyrium felix-femina
Lady Fern
36"Forest Swamppart to full shadeSemi-spreading lime green highly divided leaves make this a very useful ground cover for shady restorations and gardens.•
Dryopteris marginalis
Leatherwood Fern
(Eastern Wood Fern)
20"Forest Swamppart to full shadeBlue-green highly divided fronds. Semi-spreading, attractive ornamental fern.•
Dryopteris spinulosa
Toothed Wood Fern
24-36"Forest Swamppart to full shadeSemi-evergreen, highly divided yellowish-green fronds. Mesic to wet soils. •
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Ostrich Fern
48"Forest Swamppart to full shadeVery attractive with divided, elongate fronds held erect. Unusual fertile fronds emerge from the center in early summer and remain attractive through winter.•
Onoclea sensibilis
Sensitive Fern
12-24"Forest Swamppart sun to full shadeUnusual fern with broad green fronds and separate brown fertile fronds that are attractive year-round. Good for water gardens.•
Osmunda cinnamomea
Cinnamon Fern
24-36"Forest Swamp Marshfull sun to full shadeVery sun tolerant if always moist as in a water garden. Nice semi-erect fronds. Fertile fronds emerge from center and look like a bunch of cinnamon sticks.•
Osmunda claytoniana
Interrupted Fern
30-48"Forest
Swamp
Marsh
full sun to full shadeUnusual fern with fertile portion of leaves in the middle of central leaves. Extremely showy in the spring and holds up nicely through the summer. Widely adapted to various soil types and light levels. Wide ranging.•
Osmunda regalis
Royal Fern
24-36"Forest Swamp Marshfull sun to full shadeUnique fern not even recognized as a fern by many. Excellent for lakescaping and water gardens. Highly attractive foliage.•
Trees and shrubs
Abies balsamifera
Balsam Fir
noneto 75'Northern Forest Swampfull sun to part shadeMid-to late-successional tree of the northwoods, occasionally in swamps to the south. Nice landscape tree for island planting, excellent Christmas tree. Mesic to moist soil.••
Acer rubrum
Red Maple
Red
April to May
to 50'Northern Forest Swampfull sun to part shadeMid- to late successional tree, mostly of the northwoods but also into the deciduous forests of central WI and southern MN. Nice fall color, dry to moist soil.••
Acer saccharinum
Silver Maple
Yellow
April to May
60-100'Riparian Forest Swampfull sun to part shadePioneer species along rivers and streams and in swamps throughout MN and WI. Very fast growing. Mesic to wet soils.••
Acer saccharum
Sugar Maple
Yellow
April to May
50-75'Deciduous Forestfull sun to part shadeDominant climax (late successional) tree of decidous forests throughout the region. Best for maple sugaring. Mesic to moist soils.•
Acer spicatum
Mountain Maple
Yellow
May to June
6-24'Northern Forestfull sun to shadeBeautiful small tree/large shrub found in northern 2/3 of WI and eastern MN. Broad leaves show nice fall color. Good for shoreland restorations.•
Alnus crispa
Green Alder
Green
May to June
6-24'Northern Forestfull sun to part shadeUpland alder of dry rocky upland habitats in the north. Tends to be shorter on such sites, often taller on richer sites. Attractive cones in winter.•
Alnus rugosa
Tag Alder
Green
April to May
6-30'Swampfull sun to part shadeWidely adapted species found in essentially all wetland areas of the Upper Midwest and throughout MN and WI, ranging from moist forest to saturated swamps, riparian communities, and even bogs.•
Amelanchier arborea
Downy Serviceberry
White
April to May
10-30'Deciduous and Mixed Forestfull sun to part shadeEarly spring flowering tree blooming before leaf out. Widespread throughout WI and eastern MN. Purple fruits are good-sized and often very tasty. Good shade-tolerant mid-canopy tree species for forest restoration.•
Amelanchier laevis
Serviceberry / Juneberry
White
April to May
to 12'Forest Fields Clearcutsfull sun to part shadeOne of the earliest flowering shrubs. Stays lower with pruning. Bears bluish purple berries that are edible and attractive to wildlife. Dry to moist soils.••
Amelanchier sanguinea Roundleaf JuneberryWhite
May to June
3-15'Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeClump forming shrub common in sand barren regions in the full range of habitats from prairie to open forests. Also common in cliff communities. Ranges through most of MN and WI. Excellent species for tough sites.•
Amelanchier stolonifera
Running Serviceberry
White
April to May
2-5'Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeSpreading clump-former of open habitats, cliffs, and clear-cuts. Lowest-growing of the serviceberries. Deep purple fruit appears in July and August and is usually of excellent quality. Ranges throughout most of WI and Eastern MN.•
Aronia melanocarpa
Chokeberry
White
May
to 6'Lake Edge Forest Swampfull to part sunVery attractive spreading shrub of the rose family. Nice clusters of white flowers followed by black berries. Deep red fall foliage. Excellent for wet lake edge plantings. Mesic to wet soil.••
Betula allegheniensis
Yellow Birch
Brown
April to May
60-90'Riparian and Mixed Forestfull sun to part shadeEasy to grow birch with copper to gold peeling bark. Nice foliage. Twigs taste like wintergreen. Most common in north. Long-lived, mesic to wet soils.•
Betula glandulosa
Bog / Shrub Birch
Brown
April to May
4-12'Swamp Peatlandfull sun to part shadeColonial shrub with erect branches and nearly round toothed leaves. Fruit clusters are erect and cone shaped, persist through winter. Sometimes grows in in sand barrens. Found through most of MN and WI.•
Betula nigra
River Birch
Brown
April to May
60-90'Riparian Forest Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeCinnamon to reddish peeling bark. Long lived and disease resistant. A very nice tree for shoreland restorations on mesic to wet soils.•
Betula papyrifera
Paper Birch
Brown
April to May
to 80'Forest
Swamp
full sun to part shadeLoved for its white, peeling bark. Gorgeous in clumps on soils ranging from dry to wet. Widely adapted, found throughout the region.••
Carpinus caroliniana
Blue Beech
Green
May to June
10-25'Mesic to Moist Forestfull sun to full shadeTall shrub to small tree with unique rippled wood that resembles striated muscle. Branches tend to go up and out horizontally like an umbrella. Very nice in the landscape. Widespread in MN and WI.•
Ceanothus americanus
New Jersey Tea
White
June to Aug
1-2'Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeUnder-utilized, very attractive low shrub with glossy green leaves and 2" clusters of fragrant flowers. Great for foundation plantings and dry restoration sites. Found on dry prairies throughout the region.••
Ceanothus herbaceus
Prairie Red-Root
White
May to July
1-2'Prairie Dry Forestfull sun to shadeSimilar to New Jersey Tea, but more shade-tolerant, adapted to driest sandy soils. Dry prairies to pine forests throughout the region.••
Celastrus scandens
American Bittersweet
White
June
Vine to 30'Forest
Forest Edge
full sun to part shadeRambling climbing vine that climbs trees, shrubs or covers the ground. Most valued for bright orange berries that persist through the winter. Must plant several to get at least one female plant.•
Celtis occidentalis
Hackberry
Green
May to June
to 100'Upland River-bottomfull sun to part shadeNice long-lived tree for a variety of habitats. Ranges through most of WI (except extreme north) and southern 2/3 of MN.•
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
White
July to Aug
4-8'Swamp Riparian Forestfull sun to part shadeUnique tropical-looking shrub with glossy foliage and attractive flower clusters in summer. Native range limited to southeastern MN and southwestern WI.•
Clematis virginiana
Old Man's Beard
White
June to July
Vine to 12'Forest Edge Prairiefull to part sunVigorous climber with typical clematis foliage and showy clusters of long-haired fruit that persists all winter. Climbs on almost anything. Found throughout MN and WI.•
Comptonia peregrina Sweet FernBrown
April to May
1-2'Pine Forest Savannafull sun to part shadeVery cool low shrub with serrated elongate leaves that look like fern leaflets. Very pleasant, fragrant spicy foliage had a number of traditional medicinal uses. One of the most under-rated native shrubs.•
Cornus alternifolia
Pagoda Dogwood
White
May to June
to 16'Forest
Swamp
full sun to part shadeVery attractive shrub with arching leaves that give the appearance of a giant bonsai. Perfect for the Japanese garden as well as habitat restoration or foundation plantings. Wide ranging in MN and WI.••
Cornus ammomum
Silky Dogwood
White
May to July
to 8'Wetland Lake Edgefull to part sunVigorous shrub forms a dense cluster of brownish stems. Typically found on moist to wet soil but tolerant of more upland conditions.•
Cornus racemosa
Gray Dogwood
White
May to July
6-8'Forest Prairiefull sun to part shadeWidely adapted shrub that forms large clonal stands of scattered stems. Good fall color, excellent production of berries. Shade-tolerant.••
Cornus sericea (stolonifera)
Red Osier Dogwood
White
May to Aug
to 6'Forest Wetland Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeVery common in wetlands along lakes, streams, and rivers, particularly in the north. Red stems are beautiful in the winter. Mesic to wet soils.••
Corylus americanus
Hazelnut
Purple
March to April
6-8'Forest Wetland Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeGrowing in popularity as landscape plant due to attractive foliage and fall color. Tolerates dry to wet soils and shade to sun. Very good, fast grower.•
Diervilla lonicera
Dwarf Bush Honeysuckle
Yellow
June to Sept
2-3.5'Woodland Forest
Clearcuts
full sun to shadeFantastic low shrub for mass plantings and woodland and forest restorations. Green-bronze arrow-shaped leaves and yellow trumpet-shaped flowers through much of the summer. Dry to moist soils throughout the region.•••
Gaylussacia baccata Black HuckleberryWhite
May to June
1-3'Forest Swampfull sun to shadeAttractive low-growing shrub of rocky woodlands and swamps. Fine fall color and attractive deep purple fruit. Widespread throughout MN and WI.••
Hammemalis virginiana
Witch Hazel
Yellow
October
4'Deciduous Forestpart to full shadeFall flowering shrub with attractive foliage. Suitable for mesic to moist forest sites. Highly recommended for woodland restoration.•
Ilex verticillata
Winterberry Holly
Greenish
June
to 6'Forest Swamp Peatlandfull sun to part shadeGorgeous in winter. Female plants bear numerous red berries along stems. Excellent lake edge species, but also tolerates most upland soils. Plant at least four to ensure proper sex ratio.••
Juniperus virginiana
Red Cedar
none20-50'Prairie Savanna Forestfull to part sunVery bushy tall shrub/short tree. Very tough, fire-tolerant species of the prairies. Color changes to brownish green in winter.•
Larix laricina
Tamarack (American Larch)
none40-60'Swamp Peatland Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeThe only deciduous native conifer. Soft, light-green needles turn a beautiful gold in fall. One of last to lose leaves. Excellent for lake edge planting as well as in the landscape. Tolerates all but the driest soils.••
Lonicera canadensis
Fly Honeysuckle
Yellow
May
3-6'Swamp Forestfull sun to shadeVery nice native honeysuckle of northern WI and northeastern MN. Good woody species for shady restorations in the north. Red fruits.•
Lonicera hirsuta
Hairy Golden Honeysuckle
Golden-
Orange
June to Sept
Vine to 12'Moist Forest Swampfull sun to shadeClimbing honeysuckle that prefers cool, moist forest conditions. Rambles up erect shrubs or trees. Great for covering unsightly boat houses, etc. Good for attracting hummingbirds. Red fruit follows flowers.•
Lonicera prolifera
Yellow Vine Honeysuckle
Yellow
June to Sept
Vine to 12'Forest Forest Edgefull sun to shadeRambling shrub of the southern to central portions of MN and WI. Very attractive and vigorous. Useful for covering up unsightly structures or fences. Good hummingbird plant.•
Myrica gale
Northern Bayberry
Brown
May
3'Swamp Peatland Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeOne of the most common lake edge plants in the northern parts of MN and WI. Forms a dense, low hedge on margins of sandy mesotrophic lakes. Attractive foliage.•
Ostrya virginiana
Hop Hornbeam
Yellow
May to June
15-50'Rich Forestfull sun to shadeSlender small tree of sugar maple/basswood forests. Attractive platey bark and very hard wood. Inconspicuous flowers give rise to a hop-like cluster of fruits that persist into the winter.•
Physocarpus opulifolius
Ninebark
White
May to June
6'Prairie Forest Edgefull to part sunMaple-like leaves on mound-forming shrubs with closely spaced stems. Popular as a foundation planting shrub. Tough and easy to grow. Moist to dry soils.••
Picea glauca
White Spruce
none50-75'Northern Forestfull sun to part shadeClimax species of the northern deciduous/conifer forests into the northern boreal forests. Very attractive tree for restoration and landscaping.••
Picea mariana
Black Spruce
none50-75'Northern Forest Swampfull sun to part shadeCommon tree of a wide variety of habitats in northern portions of WI and MN.•
Pinus banksiana
Jack Pine
noneto 60'Dry Forestfull to part sunEarly successional tree of northern forests and dry sandy regions further south. Often has spreading habit. Makes a nice bonsai plant. Nice in the landscape pruned as a shrub or grown as a tree.••
Pinus resinosa
Red / Norway Pine
none100+'Mixed and Northern Forestfull sun to part shadeMost commonly planted tree for wood production in the upper midwest. Particularly attractive as it ages with reddish plated bark. Plant one on a lake edge for a future bald eagle perch.••
Pinus strobus
Eastern White Pine
none100-150'Forest Bluffs Swampfull sun to part shadeFast-growing, long-lived pine which brought the first wave of European loggers to the area. Beautiful in the landscape. Tolerant to soils from wet to dry.••
Potentilla fruiticosa
Shrub Cinquefoil
Yellow
June to Sept
2-4'Rocky Outcrops Wetlandfull sun to part shadeParent of all of the popular shrub cinquefoil varieties, one of the most popular landscape shrubs of the upper Midwest. Common in northern MN and WI, along the Great Lakes. Very long-flowering.•
Prunus americana
Wild Plum
White
May to June
to 10'Forest Edge Prairiefull to part sunProfuse bloomer with white flowers in the spring. One of the parents of domestic plums with good-tasting fruits. Produces runners and spreads to form a hedge.•
Prunus pennsylvanica
Pin Cherry
White
May to June
5-30'Forest Woodland Savannafull sun to shadeCommon throughout MN and WI on wide range of soil types. Grows under most light levels ranging from forest understories to clearcut. Nice red fruits for jam and attracting birds. Excellent for restoration sites.•
Prunus pumila
Dwarf Sandcherry
White
May to June
1-3'Woodland Savannafull sun to part shadeLow growing shrub found on rocky and sandy soils throughout MN and WI. Excellent low grower for exposed, tough restoration sites.•
Prunus serotina
Wild Black Cherry
White
June
30-70'Forest River Edgefull sun to part shadeTree highly prized for its wood. Attractive purple-black peeling bark. Covered with clusters of white flowers in spring. Fruit good in jam and for wildlife.•
Prunus virginiana
Choke Cherry
White
May to June
10-25'Forest Woodlandfull to part sunSmall tree producing runners and tending to form dome-shaped stands when growing in the open. Pendant infloresences of white flowers in spring. Good for jam.••
Quercus alba
White Oak
Green
June
to 75'Forest Woodland Savannafull sun to part shadeOrnamental hardwood valued for its timber and acorn production. Common throughout the region on moist to dry soils.•
Quercus borealis
Northern Red oak
Green
June
to 80'Forest Woodland Savannafull sun to part shadeRapidly growing ornamental hardwood. Best oak for beautiful red fall color. Tolerates moist to dry soils, long-lived.•
Quercus ellipsoidalis
Northern Pin Oak
Green
June
to 75'Forest Woodland Savannafull to part sunPioneer species growing following stand removal through fire or logging. Attractive deeply divided leaves and small acorns in abundance. Particularly adapted to dry soils.•
Quercus macrocarpa
Bur Oak
Green
June
70-80'Forest Woodland Savannafull sun to part shadeClimax tree species in drier forested areas across the region. Stately, spreading trees common in savannas. Acorns with distinct fringed cap.•
Rhus typhina
Staghorn Sumac
Cream
June
8-30'Forest Margin Savannafull to part sunRhizomatous shrub often forming dome-shaped stands along roadsides and in old fields. Trained as a tree by eliminating suckers, it produces a 20+' specimen in just a few years that is very attractive.•
Ribes americana
Black Currant
White May to June4'Forestfull sun to part shadeShade tolerant shrub of mesic to wet forests and swamps throughout MN and WI.•
Rosa arkansana
Short Prairie Rose
Deep Pink
June to July
1-4'Prairie Savanna Woodlandfull sun to part shadeWidely adapted wild rose tolerant to soils from moist to dry and full sun to part shade. Beautiful red hyps in the fall. Ranges throughout MN and WI.•
Rosa blanda
Meadow Rose
Pink
June to July
2-4'Marsh Prairie Forestfull sun to part shadeNative to most moist to wet habitats throughout MN and WI. Excellent for lake edge plantings.•
Rosa carolina
Pasture Rose
Deep Pink
June to July
1-4'Prairie
Savanna
Woodland
full sun to part shadeSimilar to above species. Great for restorations and low-maintenance landscaping with attractive hyps through fall and winter. Adapted to drier habitats than other roses including forest edges.•
Rosa palustris
Swamp Rose
Pink
May to June
4-6'Marsh Swampfull sun to part shadeFound in moist habitats in central and eastern WI, particularly at the edge of swamps and along streams. •
Rosa setigera
Tall Prairie Rose
Pink
May to June
6-12'Swamp Thicketsfull sun to part shadeStout, arching stems with thick prickles sometimes "climb" on other shrubs in swamps and forest margins. Nice as a dense barrier between shoreland properties. Native in southern WI, but hardy throughout.•
Salix humilis
Prairie Willow
White
April to May
3-8'Prairie Savannafull sun to part shadeClustered stems with attractive lance-shaped leaves. Nice addition to the savanna restoration. Ranges throughout the Upper Midwest.•
Sambucus canadensis
Wild Elderberry
White
June to July
6-12'Lake Edge Marsh Swampfull to part sunFast-growing shrub tolerant of mesic to wet soils. White flower clusters are followed by deep purple berries. Very attractive and good in jam and wine.••
Sambucus pubens
Red Berried Elderberry
White
May
4-8'Dry to Mesic Forestfull sun to full shadeShade-tolerant elderberry with red rather than purple berries that are said to be poisonous to people. A good shrub for shady locations. Very tough and easy to grow. Found throughout most of MN and WI.•
Shepherdia argentea
Buffaloberry
White
June
to 6'Prairie Savannafull to part sunTough shrub native into western MN. Attractive white foliage. Bears lots of red berries that are said to taste great out of hand and in jam.•
Shepherdia canadensis
Canada Buffaloberry
White
May to June
3-6'Rocky Outcrops Woodlandfull sun to part shadeVery tough species of sandy, rocky soils in the north. Narrow silver leaves and growth habit are very attractive for low-maintenance landscapes. Native in northern WI and northeastern MN. •
Sorbus americana
American Mountain Ash
White
June
15-30'Lake Edge Swamp Clearcutsfull to part sunSmall ornamental tree as nice as the European Mountain Ash. Broad flower clusters followed by orange fruit. Common in the north, especially along lake edges.•
Sorbus decora
Showy Mountain Ash
White
June
15-40'Mixed Forests Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeOrnamental tall shrub to small tree most common in the north, more tolerant of dry soil than American Mountain Ash.•
Spiraea alba
Meadowsweet
White
June to Aug
3-4'Prairie Lake Edge Peatlandfull to part sunShrub that frequents lake margins on soil ranging from sand to peat and saturated to moderately dry. Very fast growing for habitat restoration. Great butterfly plant.••
Spiraea tomentosa SteeplebushPink
July to Aug
2.5-3.5'Prairie
Lake Edge
Peatland
full to part sunShrub of lake margins ranging from sandy to peaty. Beautiful tall spikes of pink flowers above attractive foliage. Fast growing for shoreland restoration. Good butterfly plant.••
Symphoricarpos albus
Snowberry
White
June
3-4'Forest Woodlandfull sun to part shadeExcellent compact shrub for understory plantings and restoration sites. Blue green foliage and abundant white berries are attractive. Found throughout region.••
Thuja occidentalis
Eastern White Cedar
noneto 50'Swamp Forest Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeTree from which many ornamental Arbor Vitae shrubs are selected. Forms an attractive pyramid-shaped tree. Good evergreen privacy screen. Valuable wildlife cover.••
Tilia americana
Basswood
Green
June
to 100'Mesic to Moist Forestfull sun to part shadeImportant component of climax forests along with sugar maple. Trees sucker from the base, often forming disinct several-stemmed clumps. Widespread in MN and WI.•
Vaccinium angustifolium
Lowbush Blueberry
White
May to June
6-18"Prairie Forest Peatlandfull sun to shadeYummy, fruit-producing, sprawling plants that grow in a range of habitats ranging from dry, sandy pine barrens to saturated peatlands. Wide-ranging in MN and WI.••
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Cranberry
Pink
May to June
4-8"Swamp Peatlandfull sun to shadeVery attractive creeping evergreen groundcover that produces good-sized red, fully edible berries in the fall. Color turns reddish in the fall. OK for moist upland soil. Widespread in the Upper Midwest.•
Vaccinium myrtilloides Velvet Leaf BlueberryPinkish
May to June
6-18"Prairie Forest Peatlandfull sun to shadeWhitish velvety leaves atop compact plants that can produce an abundance of purple fruit from July to Sept. Widely adapted from sunny dry soils to shady peatland. Widespread in the Upper Midwest.••
Vaccinium oxycoccos Small CranberryPink
May to June
to 6"Swamp Peatlandfull sun to shadeVery low creeping cranberry with small tart, edible fruit. Evergreen foliage turns purple in winter. Nice for moist to wet restoration sites.•
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Mountain CranberryPinkish
June to July
4-8"Swamp Peatlandfull sun to shadeLow clustered stems with attractive evergreen leaves. Found in northern WI and MN. Much esteemed in the far north for sizable tart red berries.•
Viburnum acerifolium
Maple-leaf Viburnum
White
June to July
3-5'Forestfull sun to full shadeSpecies of the eastern U.S. Found in most forest types throughout WI, though never particularly dominant. Excellent for shady restoration sites. Red to purple berries good for wildlife. Beautiful fall color.•
Viburnum dentatum
Arrowwood Viburnum
White
June
10-12'Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeGlossy green toothed leaves. Dark purple berries in summer. Nice tall shrub for shoreland planting or as a hedge. Mesic to wet soils.••
Viburnum lentago
Nannyberry
White
June
10-15'Forest Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeTall shrub with excellent purple fall foliage. Blue-black berries are very tasty fresh or in jam. Great bird cover and forage. Mesic to wet soils.••
Viburnum rafinesquianum
Downy Arrowwood
White
June
3-6'Forest Woodlandfull sun to part shadeNative of relatively dry rocky woodlands and forests. Nice deep glossy foliage with prominent teeth and good fall color. Native throughout MN and WI.•
Viburnum trilobum
Highbush Cranberry
White
June
10-12'Forest Swamp Lake Edgefull sun to part shadeForms tall dense clusters with maple-like lobed leaves. Broad clusters of flowers followed by red berries that persist through winter for beauty and birds.••